Womens Justice Center




















News Round-up ~ Resumen de noticias


 

 

Annotation: 

This summary report of a study of intimate partner homicide (IPH) among Latinos in America determined its rate, characteristics, and trends compared to IPH among Whites and African-Americans.

 

Abstract: 

Overall, the study found significant differences in the proportion of IPHs between Latinos and non-Latinos for each racial group (White, Black, and “other“), but was most striking compared to IPH among Whites. Twenty-two percent of homicides among Whites involved IPH; 10 percent of Black homicides were IPHs; 10 percent of Latino homicides were IPHs; and 17 percent of homicides among “other“ races were IPHs.

Regarding the age and gender of IPH victims, Latino victims were more likely to be in the 35-64 age group.

Relative to other homicides, IPH was 21 times higher for Latino women than Latino men.

Racial/ethnic comparisons were also made regarding the gender of IPH offenders, the circumstances of the homicide, whether or not alcohol/drug abuse was involved, prior history of abuse, weapon used in the homicide, and marital status. Data for this study were obtained from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The NVDRS is the first national surveillance system for violent deaths It provides systematic, accurate, and timely data on violent deaths. For this study, data pertain to variables related to incidents; victims; suspects; death certificates; coroner/medical examiner/hospital; law enforcement; victim-suspect relationship; and weapon used. Data on race/ethnicity were obtained from death certificates. 3 tables and 13 references

FULL STUDY PDF AVAILABLE ONLINE HERE

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Una comisión de expertas y expertos diseñará la estructura y la misión en los próximos sesenta días.

La UFEM es la primera unidad creada en la Procuración General de la Nación con la aplicación de la nueva Ley Orgánica del Ministerio Público Fiscal. Responde, en parte, a “la histórica manifestación realizada bajo el lema Ni Una Menos”.

 
 

 

 Por Soledad Vallejos

La Procuración General de la Nación creó la Unidad Fiscal Especializada en Violencia contra las Mujeres (UFEM), que tiene “carácter permanente” y responde a “la necesidad de jerarquizar la estructura” fiscal dedicada específicamente a estos delitos. La resolución 1960/2015, que establece su funcionamiento, señala que la UFEM “es la reacción institucional a demandas de distintos órdenes”: los compromisos internacionales del Estado argentino y las exigencias de la ley de protección de violencia contra las mujeres; “un claro reclamo social” que fue visibilizado por “la histórica manifestación realizada días atrás bajo el lema Ni Una Menos”, y la necesidad de jerarquizar y profundizar lo realizado por “el Programa de Políticas de Género y por dispositivos similares de otros Ministerios Públicos Fiscales”.

 
 
 

PERSPECTIVA

Desde hace un mes la sociedad se puso de pie y acordó decir basta, reafirmar el derecho a decir no a lo que no se quiere, no se desea y no se acepta, y decir sí a lo que cada mujer elige por ella. Por eso, se pidió:

 

1. La puesta en marcha e instrumentación en su totalidad y con la asignación de presupuesto acorde de la LEY N º 26.485, "Ley de Protección Integral para Prevenir, Sancionar y Erradicar la Violencia contra las Mujeres en los ámbitos en que desarrollen sus relaciones interpersonales".

2. Recopilación y publicación de estadísticas oficiales sobre violencia hacia las mujeres incluyendo los índices de femicidios.

3. Apertura y funcionamiento pleno de Oficinas de Violencia Doméstica de la Corte Suprema de Justicia en todas las provincias, con el objeto de agilizar las medidas cautelares de protección. Federalización de la línea 137.

4. Garantías para la protección de las víctimas de violencia. Implementación del monitoreo electrónico de los victimarios para asegurar que no violen las restricciones de acercamiento que impone la Justicia.

5. Garantías para el acceso de las víctimas a la Justicia. Atención de personal capacitado para recibir las denuncias en cada fiscalía y cada comisaría. Vinculación de las causas de los fueros civil y penal. Patrocinio jurídico gratuito para las víctimas durante todo el proceso judicial.

6. Garantías para el cumplimiento del derecho de la niñez con un patrocinio jurídico especializado y capacitado en la temática.

7. Creación de más Hogares/Refugio en la emergencia, Hogares de Día para víctimas, y subsidio habitacional, con una asistencia interdisciplinaria desde una perspectiva de género.

8. Incorporación y profundización en todas las currículas educativas de los diferentes niveles de la educación sexual integral con perspectiva de género, la temática de la violencia machista y dictado de talleres para prevenir noviazgos violentos.

9. Capacitaciones obligatorias en la temática de violencia machista al personal del Estado, a los agentes de seguridad y a los operadores judiciales, así como a profesionales que trabajan con la temática de violencia en diferentes dependencias oficiales de todo el país.

 

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Direct Link to Full 9-Page 2015 Study Document: http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/law-0000037.pdf

This study tests whether there is substantial undercounting of sexual assault by universities. It compares the sexual assault data submitted by universities while being audited for Clery Act violations with the data from years before and after such audits. If schools report higher rates of sexual assault during times of higher regulatory scrutiny (audits), then that result would support the conclusion that universities are failing to accurately tally incidents of sexual assault during other time periods.

The study finds that university reports of sexual assault increase by approximately 44% during the audit period. After the audit is completed, the reported sexual assault rates drop to levels statistically indistinguishable from the pre-audit time frame. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the ordinary practice of universities is to undercount incidents of sexual assault. Only during periods in which schools are audited do they appear to offer a more complete picture of sexual assault levels on campus.

Further, the data indicate that the audits have no long-term effect on the reported levels of sexual assault, as those crime rates return to previous levels after the audit is completed. This last finding is supported even in instances when fines are issued for noncompliance. The study tests for a similar result with the tracked crimes of aggravated assault, robbery, and burglary, but reported crimes show no statistically significant differences before, during, or after audits.

The results of the study point toward 2 broader conclusions directly relevant to policymaking in this area. First, greater financial and personnel resources should be allocated commensurate with the severity of the problem and not based solely on university reports of sexual assault levels. Second, the frequency of auditing should be increased, and statutorily capped fines should be raised to deter transgressors from continuing to undercount sexual violence. The Campus Accountability and Safety Act, presently before Congress, provides an important step in that direction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

 

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Evidence Rating: No Effects - More than one study 

Program Description

Program Goals

The Sexual Assault Risk Reduction Program was a rape prevention program for college students. The program was designed to teach about the prevalence of sexual assault, distinguish between myths and facts about rape and rapists, describe techniques women can use to increase personal safety; and identify agencies that can assist victims of sexual assault. The overall goal of the program was to reduce the occurrence of sexual assault by increasing women’s use of self-protective strategies and enhancing women’s self-efficacy in responding to threatening situations.

.....

Evaluation Outcomes:

Across three evaluations of the Sexual Assault Risk Reduction program, no significant differences between the treatment and comparison groups were found for any of the behavioral measures. Although there were statistically significant differences for the rape-myth acceptance and protective-dating behaviors outcomes, these differences were small and were the only significant outcomes for the attitudinal measures.  Overall, the preponderance of evidence suggests that the intervention did not impact sexual assault for program participants.

SEE FULL STUDY REPORT HERE

 

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Delegates to the first Summit of Women Leaders of African Descent of the Americas taking part in one of the working groups organised during the three-day gathering held Jun. 26-28 in Managua, Nicaragua. Credit: José Adán Silva/IPS

MANAGUA, Jun 29 2015 (IPS) - They say they are tired of waiting for justice after centuries of neglect and contempt due to the color of their skin. Black women leaders from 22 countries of the Americas have decided to create a political platform that set a 10-year target for empowering women of African descent and overcoming discrimination.

“We’re going to fight with all of our strength to break the chains of racism and racially-motivated violence,” Shary García from Colombia told IPS at the end of the first Summit of Women Leaders of African Descent of the Americas, which drew 270 delegates to Managua Jun. 26-28.

García said the three days of debates in the Nicaraguan capital gave rise to the Political Declaration of Managua, whose 17 demands and central themes are aimed at eradicating discrimination based on a combination of racial and gender reasons in the Americas.

“It wasn’t easy to sum up in 17 ideas the complaints and demands of 270 women and their families, who have experienced discrimination, violence and the denial of their rights all their lives. But each and every one of us who came here knows that this is how the beginning of the end of discrimination starts.”

CONTINUES

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Remedies for Forced Marriage - A Handbook for Lawyers brings together expert commentaries by lawyers and activists working on the issue of forced marriages and interference with choice in marriage in four different countries: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and the United Kingdom.

The Handbook is intended to assist those seeking legal remedies in such cases, and in particular to prevent forced marriages, and protect those affected. While aimed primarily at lawyers, we hope that it will also be useful for voluntary sector workers, social workers and women’s rights advocates and activists seeking to identify available legal remedies.

The Handbook discusses available remedies in four countries for securing the right to choice in marriage. While focusing on legal remedies – available through the courts – it also identifies practical steps to be taken prior to or alongside any attempted legal action.

The Handbook is divided into two parts, the first on the United Kingdom and the second on the three countries in South Asia. In each case the discussion on legal remedies focuses broadly around four broad areas, namely applicable laws, the court system, the criteria for validity of marriage, and remedies for prevention and protection. The discussion on remedies in the UK differs significantly from that in the other countries, reflecting the different legal systems.

Cover page
Inside cover and dedication
Table of contents
Introduction
Part I: Remedies in United Kingdom
1 Legal Remedies for Forced Marriage in United Kingdom
Anne-Marie Hutchinson OBE and Teertha Gupta QC
2 Escaping Forced Marriage: Non-Legal Remedies in United Kingdom
Hannana Siddiqui
Part 2: Remedies in South Asia
3 Remedies for Forced Marriage in Bangladesh
Sara Hossain
4 Remedies for Forced Marriage in India
Asmita Basu and Jayna Kothari
5 Remedies for Forced Marriage in Pakistan
Sohail Akbar Warraich
Acknowledgements
Acronyms
Glossary
List of Laws
List of Cases

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Hay organizaciones que están desarrollando aplicaciones de alerta que periodistas, defensores de derechos humanos y otras personas pueden utilizar para enviar un mensaje de emergencia a sus amigos y compañeros de trabajo si sienten que corren un peligro inmediato. Crédito: Johan Larsson / cc by 2.0

NACIONES UNIDAS, 24 jun 2015 (IPS) - El uso generalizado de la tecnología digital, como las imágenes satelitales, las cámaras adheridas al cuerpo y los teléfonos inteligentes, es una nueva herramienta para registrar y denunciar la violación de los derechos humanos en el mundo.

“Todos hemos visto cómo se registran en los teléfonos celulares las acciones de agentes de policía y otras personas que utilizan una fuerza excesiva, y eso conduce a medidas contra los responsables”, declaró el relator especial de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU) sobre ejecuciones extrajudiciales, Christof Heyns

CONTINUA

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“La lucha feminista y la defensa de los derechos humanos ha de sobrepasar fronteras y culturas”

Femen publica un manifiesto para explicar la ideología y metodología de acción del movimiento

Madrid, 25 junio. 15, AmecoPress. Una acción en la embajada de Túnez en Madrid daba el 6 de junio de 2013 el inicio de la rama española de Femen –el movimiento feminista ucraniano que se caracteriza por usar el desnudo de las mujeres como arma política-. Pero fue un mes antes, a principios de mayo, cuando Lara Alcázar (Asturias, 1991) y apenas cuatro compañeras más iniciaban su andadura revolucionaria. Dos años más tarde, las activistas de Femen España se encuentran presentando el ‘Manifiesto Femen’, con el que quieren dar a conocer su movimiento “por dentro” y facilitar la participación de quienes quieran sumarse a él.

Lara habla rápido y claro. Su seguridad no es impostura ni simple estrategia, sino una conquista propia de quien hace aquello que cree, con valentía. Se defiende bien de las numerosas y variadas críticas que Femen recibe de hombres y mujeres, también del feminismo, pero es humilde y aboga por la inclusión. Radical –en el sentido de ir a la raíz- y políticamente incorrecta.

ENTREVISTA AQUI

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EXCERPT:

Carey and Ohlsen's studies were unprecedented before local police began to characterize child prostitutes as sex trafficking victims in 2009. It's a step in the right direction: the classification places more of the burden on trafficking suspects than victims. Here are some more of Carey's findings:

  • 469 child sex trafficking victims were identified between 2009 and 2013.
  • The average age of victims was 15. The youngest was 8.
  • 96 percent of the victims were female.
  • 40 percent of the victims were white, 27 percent were black and 5 percent were Hispanic.
  • Nearly 17 percent of victims had a child of their own when they were identified.
  • 62 percent of victims were dealing with addiction issues.
 
 

SEE FULL ARTICLE HERE

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The dozens of women piling into roller coasters together at Six Flags amusement park in New Jersey one recent spring day didn't all speak the same language. But they shared another bond — each one had found the courage to escape an arranged marriage. The women were celebrating their independence and their new community with the local group that had made their leap possible, a legal services non-profit called Unchained At Last. 

LISTEN TO AUDIO HERE:

It's a labor of love for its founder, Fraidy Reiss. She grew up in Brooklyn's Orthodox Jewish community where her arranged marriage at the age of 19 was not unusual. 

"The adults in my life who knew me were telling me that this was the right thing and that this was a great guy, and he is the perfect match for you," she says. "It didn't occur to me to question that, or to think otherwise. Saying no to a match was a scary prospect." 

Reiss remembers the exact moment when she realized her husband wasn't the man she'd hoped for. It was a week after her wedding. 

CONTINUES

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Annotation: 

Recognizing that one of the most traumatic events a child can experience is the arrest of a parent in the presence of the child, this report presents model practices for such arrests.

 

Abstract: 

Law enforcement agencies are in a unique position to limit this harm to a child in three key ways. First, modify arrest procedures to make them less traumatic for children. Second, adopt protocols that ensure children have immediate support from competent caregivers and are otherwise protected from harm in the aftermath of a parental arrest. Third, collaborate with social workers and child advocates in connecting children of arrested parents with the services they need. With these broad recommendations as a guide, this report outlines several model protocols and practices that law enforcement agencies can use in conducting arrests of parents whose children are present at the scene of an arrest. Among the topics discussed are the effects and extent of exposure to trauma and violence in children; current efforts at the national, State, and local levels to improve the treatment of children during parental arrests; and detailed model practices for improving the treatment of children during a parental arrest. Attention is give to model protocols for planning an arrest to determine whether children will be at the scene, ways officers can be attentive to the needs of the children while observing proper and safe arrest procedures, and ways in which police agencies can work with child-serving agencies to ensure that children’s needs are being met while the parent is in custody. Appended supplementary information and samples of aids that can be used

FULL PDF FREE ONLINE HERE

SAMPLE PAGE FROM GUIDE...

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Un informe que llegó a Associated Press señala que los cascos azules asignados por la ONU a Haití participaron en “transacciones” que implicaban relaciones sexuales a cambio de alimentos y medicamentos con más de 200 mujeres y niñas. Ell propio informe subraya que muchos de los casos de violencia sexual no llegan a quedar registrados.

Según un nuevo informe de la Oficina de Servicios de Supervisión Interna de la ONU (OSSI) en posesión de la agencia de noticias, una tercera parte de los presuntos casos de explotación y violencia sexual implica a menores de 18 años.

Estas atrocidades vieron la luz después de que un grupo de investigadores entrevistara a 231 personas en Haití que afirman haber sido obligadas a realizar prácticas sexuales con cascos azules de la ONU a cambio de la posibilidad de ver satisfechas sus necesidades más elementales.

CONTINUA

 

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La trata de personas y su explotación sexual es una pesadilla en América Latina y a nivel mundial. El problema es ignorado a pesar de ser el tercer negocio más lucrativo, tras el narcotráfico y la venta de armas. Además según la ONU, más de 4,000.000 mujeres son vendidas cada año para servir en prostitución, esclavitud o matrimonio, y más de 2,000.000 niñas son introducidas en el comercio sexual.

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It is very likely that Pope Francis will issue an encyclical Thursday that will endorse the scientific consensus that the earth is warming and that this change in climate is caused in large part by greenhouse gases generated by human activity. One cheer for the pope! All things considered, it obviously is a good thing that the pope recognizes the reality of climate change.

Unfortunately, when it comes to proposing remedies for the problem, the pope ignores one of the principal underlying causes, not just for global warming, but for other looming ecological disasters.

The pope will apparently recommend reduction in the use of fossil fuels. Sure, yes, that will help and virtually everyone agrees that should be done. Of course, how to bring about this reduction in fossil fuels without adverse economic consequences is a subject of much debate, and here, apparently, the pope has nothing to offer but nostrums. Exhortations to lead a simpler life and a call for richer nations to assist poorer nations in the transition away from fossil fuels sound more like wishful thinking than practical solutions.

There is one very practical measure, immediately realizable and eminently feasible that is, as it were, staring the pope right in the face: The pope should not only end the Catholic Church's morally absurd and repugnant opposition to contraception, but should urge all families to engage in responsible family planning.

Reducing population growth would have a substantial positive effect on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. One persuasive scientific analysis indicates that reducing population growth could help achieve 37 percent to 41 percent of the targeted reduction in emissions by the end of the century. This paper also pointed out that "there is a substantial unmet need for family planning and reproductive health services in many countries."

CONTINUES

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Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand's (D-N.Y.) proposed military sexual assault reform that failed Tuesday in the Senate by a vote of 50-49. | MANDEL NGAN via Getty Images
 
Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand's (D-N.Y.) proposed military sexual assault reform fell short on Tuesday of the 60 votes it needed to pass in the Senate, for the second year in a row.

Gillibrand's bipartisan amendment to the National Defense Authorization Act would have removed sexual assault cases from the military chain of the command and established an independent justice system to handle those crimes. Gillibrand said military rape victims are afraid to report their crimes because they don't trust the chain of command not to retaliate against them for doing so. According to the latestDepartment of Defense survey, three out of four servicemembers don't trust the system enough to report their assaults, and one in seven military sexual assault survivors said their perpetrator was someone in their chain of command.

"Our sons, our daughters, our husbands, our wives are being betrayed by the greatest military on earth," Gillibrand told her colleagues before the vote.

CONTINUES

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Meet Claudia Paz y Paz, Guatamela's first female attorney general, who, upon entering office, garnered a reputation for fearlessly indicting elite members of her country's government and organized crime units, many of whom had enjoyed decades of living "above the law." "Burden of Peace" follows Paz y Paz -- named by Forbes as one of thefive most powerful women changing the world in 2012 -- throughout her term starting in 2010, watching as she tackles cases against former dictator Efraín Ríos Montt and the instigators of the Dos Erres massacre that resulted in the deaths of 200 men, women and children. Directed by Joey Boink. (Screens Tuesday, June 16, at IFC Center and Thursday, June 18, at the Film Society of Lincoln Center)

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Recognizing that sensitive and complicated dynamics related to child discipline arise in domestic violence shelters, this Technical Assistance Guidance focuses on challenges regarding parenting and discipline of children who reside in these shelters, proposing a variety of recommendations for practice. 

View Full Resource: PDF PDF

 

VAWNET SUMMARY:

Supporting Parenting of Children Residing in Domestic Violence Shelters by Casey Keene & Ivonne Ortiz for the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence (May 2015)

Each year, thousands of children accompany their mothers into domestic violence shelters after witnessing and experiencing abuse in their homes. In just one day in 2013, domestic violence programs across the country and US Territories served 66,581 victims. Of that number, 19,431 were children who found refuge in an emergency shelter or transitional housing program. Children are impacted by domestic violence at home in a variety of ways and are therefore particularly vulnerable upon entering shelter with their mothers. Recognizing that sensitive and complicated dynamics related to child discipline arise in domestic violence shelters, this Technical Assistance Guidance focuses on challenges regarding parenting and discipline of children who reside in these shelters, proposing a variety of recommendations regarding this topic. Resources for further education, training and staff development are included.

 

 

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Entrevista a Jorge Zepeda Patterson.El escritor mexicano ganó el Premio Planeta con una novela sobre la trata de mujeres.

 

 

Desde que Milena o el fémur más bello del mundo convirtió a Jorge Zepeda Patterson en el primer mexicano que obtiene el Premio Planeta de Novela, dotado con más de 600 mil euros, el autor no para de girar por la vasta geografía hispanohablante. Luego vendrán las traducciones a lenguas inesperadas, como el turco o el croata, porque ya le ocurrió con su anterior trabajo narrativo Los corruptores.

Es que el ensayista, columnista de diarios de referencia, fundador de Siglo XXI - el diario que marcó un mojón en el periodismo mexicano-, maestro de reporteros y novelista, tiene obsesiones que comparte con mucha gente: la corrupción política, el envilecimiento de las fuerzas de seguridad, la trata de personas, el narcotráfico, el crimen organizado que se extiende sin pausa. Con apenas dos novelas, Jorge Zepeda Patterson ya está en boca de editores, lectores y medios de comunicación.

CONTINUA

 

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An investigation into the abuse and exploitation of aboriginal women in Canada and the authorities' failure to stop it.

Canada's aboriginal women make up a small fraction of its population, yet for decades they have suffered disproportionally from abuse, exploitation and murder.

Since the 1980s, over 1,000 indigenous women have been murdered in this developed North American nation, yet, according to campaigners and human rights groups, too few of these cases have resulted in arrests or prosecution.

Amid mounting claims of official indifference to the problem that some say has its roots in racism and the country's colonial past, People & Power asks why police and the government are not doing more to tackle crimes against Canada's first nation females.

SEE ARTICLE

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Plural Legal Systems

Does this woman living along a mountain cave complex on the outskirts of Bamian, Afghanistan, know she has CIVIL LAW RIGHTS in her country?? She is a member of the Hazara, one of the largest ethnic groups in Afghanistan.

The due diligence principle & The role of the state: Discrimination against women in family & cultural life

http://duediligenceproject.org/Home_files/DDP%20UNWG%20Submission%20Final%20300115.pdf

“States must also address shortcomings in the formal system to make it accessible so that women may opt to use the formal system and are supported when they attempt to access the formal system.”

Plural Legal Systems

States with multiple sources of law or diverse sociocultural demographics must ensure that customary or religious legal systems are interpreted (or reinterpreted) to meet contemporary and changing dynamics, values and challenges. States should circumscribe the applicability of such laws if they breach women’s human rights.

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Av. Entre Ríos 181 
Contactos: Daniela 1140452394 Mafalda 1165520905
 
 En este momento la Confluencia Movimiento Popular La Dignidad/ Movimiento Tupaj Katari y la Corriente Villera Independiente estamos acampando frente al Consejo Nacional de las Mujeres para dar continuidad a la gran convocatoria  del 3 de junio, manifestándonos una vez más en contra de todas las formas de violencia hacia las mujeres, para que no haya una mujer más perseguida, desaparecida y muerta en manos de este sistema patriarcal. En los días siguientes, los reclamos se multiplicaron y no así las respuestas. Hace muchos años que denunciamos esta situación y el gobierno y las instituciones nos han dado la espalda, una y otra vez. No basta con crear registros de los femicidios, no queremos morir más. Queremos que el Estado y los gobiernos de turno dejen de violentarnos con sus políticas de hambre, miseria, explotación, saqueo, despojo y represión.
 
Por la responsabilidad del Estado machista y la justicia cómplice es que exigimos :
 
* Apertura de Programas de Trabajo para Mujeres
 
* Respuesta al problema habitacional de las mujeres que sufren violencia
 
* Financiamiento para Casas de las Mujeres en todo el país
 
* Declaración de la Emergencia Nacional de Violencia hacia las mujeres 
 
Confluencia Movimiento Popular La Dignidad/ Movimiento Tupaj Katari - Corriente Villera Independiente

 

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A mother who attempted to commit suicide last week while locked up in a family detention center in Karnes City, Texas, was deported Tuesday along with her 4-year-old son.

Immigration and Customs Enforcement officials had prevented the woman, Lilian Yamileth Oliva, 19, from meeting with her attorneys, according to Javier Maldonado, one of the lawyers working on her case. He added that Oliva had a strong case to avoid deportation because she had faced domestic abuse and death threats in her home country of Honduras.

Maldonado, who took over the case from another attorney, told The Huffington Post that before he could move forward, he needed to obtain the copy of the Board of Immigration Appeals decision that was in Oliva's possession and to interview his client. He says he was unable to do either before Oliva was deported.

 

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Professor Elizabeth Heineman’s talk at OSU focused on international humanitarian law and human rights law regarding violence against women. As she noted, sexual violence in settings of armed conflict may now be prosecuted as a grave violation of international humanitarian law, yet many states lack adequate frameworks to address “peacetime” issues covered under the human rights framework, such as intimate partner violence. She explores the reasons for this disparity.

Heineman is chair of the Department of History at the University of Iowa, specializes in modern German and European history and in the history of women, gender, and sexuality. Her many publications include What Difference Does a Husband Make?: Women and Marital Status in Nazi and Postwar Germany and Before Porn was Legal. She edited the highly acclaimed anthology, The History of Sexual Violence in Conflict Zones. Herself the daughter and granddaughter of Holocaust survivors, she is currently embarked on an ambitious project to examine the intrafamilial relationships of Jews leading toward the Holocaust and then after it, to see how family members responded to persecution and later to genocide.

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EXCERPT:

The investigation had taken over a year and had led agents into the darkest depths of a world few know about, a world where terrorists, drug dealers and pedophiles roam freely. Known as “the Dark Web,” it is a series on non-indexed sites around the world that create an abyss 500 times larger than the Internet you and I surf every day.

Tor is free software that allows a user to browse, send e-mail and chat anonymously. It also allows users access to the “Dark Web.” A 2014 study by University of Portsmouth computer science researcher Gareth Owen discovered a startling 80 percent of the traffic to sites on the Dark Web were associated with child pornography.

In an interview with CBS News, Greg Virgin, who formerly worked with the National Security Agency and is now a cyber security consultant to children’s rights groups commented, “It was just an awful realization, discovering there were tens of thousands of people who are not only trading child pornography, but planning to exploit children.”

On the Dark Web, pedophile “shopping” sites advertise children for sale as well as take “orders” for specific age groups. Virgin said, “We found one site where users openly advertised the ages of the children they were interested in. The average youngest age they were seeking for girls was zero years old. And the average age for boys was one.”

FULL ARTICLE HERE

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Treatment for Juvenile and Adult Sex Offenders Rated by CrimeSolutions.gov

Treatment Programs for Adult and Juvenile Sex Offenders and

Adult Sex Offender Treatment Programs Receive Mixed Ratings
Adult sex offender treatment programs include a variety of psychological interventions, cognitive–behavioral treatments, and behavioral therapies targeting adult sex offenders with the overall aim of reducing the risk and potential harm associated with releasing this population back into the community. The practice is rated Promising by CrimeSolutions.gov for reducing rates of general recidivism and sexual recidivism, but rated No Effects on violent recidivism rates. Learn more about this program and the evaluations on CrimeSolutions.gov.

Juvenile Sex Offender Treatment Programs Receive Mixed Ratings
The practice of Juvenile Sex Offender Treatment covers a variety of treatment modalities (including cognitive behavioral therapy, relapse prevention, and multisystemic therapy) designed to reduce the risks and harms associated with juveniles at risk of committing sexual offenses. The practice is rated “Promising” for reducing juveniles’ rates of general recidivism and sexual recidivism, but rated “No Effects” on violent recidivism rates. Learn more about this program and the evaluations on CrimeSolutions.gov.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Children with Sexual Behavior Problems Rated “Effective” 
This short-term, outpatient group treatment program for school-age children with sexual behavior problems provides cognitive-behavioral, psychoeducational, and supportive services to children and their families. The program is rated Effective for reducing sexual offenses in youth. Learn more about this program and the evaluations on CrimeSolutions.gov.

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